Tuesday, March 24, 2020
Americas Teens up in Smoke essays On every street corner in America, you will find a teen smoking. Even though a number of commercials and school orientations have given the effects of smoking, the kids feel they are invincible to the effects smoking can cause. Tobacco companies have targeted the youth, ages eleven to seventeen, because they are the future of their industry and very influential (Britannica online). Yes it is true; the future of America has been the focus of their progression. However, how can we have a healthy outlook on the future if 34.8 percent of our youth are inhaling five hundred chemicals into their bodies (Britannica online)? Society needs to focus on telling teenagers the numerous effects of smoking, so they can live a healthier life. The effects of smoking have long been proven to destroy out bodies. The number one disease caused by smoking is cancer. Ola James husband died of lung cancer this past summer. She says Every time I see someone light a cigarette, I think of how sick Richard was and it breaks my heart. She has watched the one person who meant more to her than anyone else in the world, die from a disease that TV has advertised for years. Although a smoker for many years, Richard James might be alive today if he had quit smoking when he was young. Smoking can also cause emphysema, which is a condition of the lungs marked by distension and frequently by impairment of heart action. Smoking has also been known to cause yellow stains on teeth, inflamed gums, periodontal disease, and other diseases of the mouth (Britannica online). With that in mind, who wants to have a cigarette hanging out of their mouth? Well the answer to that question can be answered in two words . . . todays youth. While no one really understands why teenagers take their first puff, whether its peer pressure or another reason, the fact is that they do. Obviously the ...
Friday, March 6, 2020
Depression in Older Adults Abstract This paper examines depression amongst the old adult population in the world with specific references to the United States of America. It gives a background on what depression is and discusses situation under which it develops in older adult population.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Depression in Older Adults specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Besides, it examines depression in older adult population in relation to such factors as gender where females are found to be more prone to depression than their male counterparts, it also considers sexual orientations in which it discusses how lesbians and gays are more likely to have stress than heterosexuals and it finally compares how race and culture play a role in depression amongst the elderly in society. With respect to homosexuality, the paper examines the various ways through which older adult population get discriminated by the members of the society who are anti-homosexuality and institutions that do not recognize both lesbianism and gay as a form of lifestyle that should be accepted as in existence. Introduction Depression is a condition that mostly affects the cognition of a human being. It means different thing to different people; it can be symptomatic as when an individual says he or she is feeling depressed, it also be a sign as when someone observes that another person is depressed or at the same time it can be a disorder that is clinically diagnosed. When a clinical diagnosis of depression is done, it implies a disorder which has a significant length of time and having particularly observable signs and symptoms, that significantly interferes with an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s functioning or that causes great personal distress or both (Jefferson 10). But one may ask Ã¢â¬Å"What are the causes of depression?Ã¢â¬ depression has varied causes amongst the whole of the human race regardless of age or gender. It is almost always caused b y a combination of factors. Such factors are inheritance or genetic predisposition, developmental factors such as early loss of parents, cognitive factors such as intense grief reaction and stress such as coping with unemployment and or physical illnesses; these two combine to result into a common pathway for inducement of depression. Research has indicated that each individual has a pattern of genetic, developmental, environmental, social, personality and physiological factors that coalesce to permit or protect against depression at any point in time.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The understanding and modification of the contributions of these factors is the ultimate goal of the clinicians who engage in the treatment of depression. This paper examines depressions in older adults. It will deal with how depression occurs in older adult population; besides, it will also di scuss the main causes of depression in older adulthood and how it affects them (Jefferson 10). Depression in Older Adults Depression is the most common mental disorder found amongst older adults in the parts of the world, but it should not be seen as part of the aging process; in fact a good number of older adults . It is one of the most disabling conditions among the older adult population. In the United States alone it is approximated that over six million adults aged 65 and above experience clinical depression; the adult population represents about 15% of the adult population above 65 years of age in the United States. Prevalence estimates in older adults range from 5% in community samples to about 20% in nursing home residents and close to 30% of the older adults witnessed in primary care setting. Research has also indicated that approximately 50% of the adults who are admitted in hospitals experience clinical depression (Williams 59). It is important to note that depression in older adults is caused by varied numerous factors and may be different from the causative factors leading to depression in the younger people. In addition to the biological etiology of depression in the older adults, there are vividly cognitively contributing factors. The adultÃ¢â¬â¢s life events and the interpretation and response to event contribute to the risk of developing depression. The predominant life events that place older adults at risks for depression as well as contribute to the experience by older adults and receptiveness to treatment for depression are medical illnesses, bereavement or death of a son, daughter or any other significant other, disability, impaired social support and or trauma. These factors do not necessarily exclusively lead to depression, but may combine with other factors in a chain of events ultimately leading to depression in older adults. Research findings have indicated that the risk factors combined with behavioral, psychodynamic and negative thoughts surrounding the events of life seem to have substantial contribution to depression that comes in late life periods. For example, older adults may have an perception about their lives that no matter what they attempt to achieve, negative things continue to happen and perpetually continue to experience losses in their lives hence they assume a hopelessness position. It has also been found out through research that older adults may not easily adapt to the physical changes they are experiencing as a result of aging and hence may have some unrealistic expectation and have a feeling or perception of that they are likely to continue in failure as an adult.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Depression in Older Adults specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Majority of older adults fall into one or more at-risk groups for depression. Nonetheless, many are not aware of their symptoms of depression and hence do not make a requ est or seek evaluation. Besides, research indicates that many older adults have resistance towards seeking medical attention due to stigma labeled against mental illnesses. According to several research activities that have been conducted, it has been found that black older adults are more likely to suffer depression as compared to their white counterparts (Bernal 403). Besides, other research also indicate that races with the majority of low income earners like blacks, Hispanics are more vulnerable to issues of depression than the white counterparts. Given racial and ethnic discriminations, it is important to state that races that are subject or victims of racial discrimination are more likely to suffer depression; the older elders may resign into perception where they feel inferior to the perceived superior whites and hence cause them hopelessness and depression, especially when they see their loved ones or fellow race members being discriminated against. Taking the case for Weste rn and other developed nations where slavery was practiced, it is crucial recognize that those who come from races that experienced slavery are highly likely to experience depression than those within former slave masters. Some of the depression symptoms appearing some adults may be traces of depression during childhood with which the adult might have lived to his or her old age; this is coupled by inferiority complex. Meanwhile, ethnicity has also been found to have effects on depression amongst the older adult population (Bernal 327). Gender also plays a significant role in depression. There are a number of research that have been done on how gender influence experience of depression. The research findings have been compiled from data collected in most countries of the world. According to the findings, women have higher chances of experiencing depression than men. Even though it is not clear what really accounts for this, but researchers acknowledge the contribution of several fac tors which entails impact of estrogen on stress hormones, the common victimization of women through rape and domestic violence and cortisol (FredÃ ©n 163).Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Other research findings reveal that both men and women share depression to a certain proportion; however, what also contributes to the difference is the fact that both men and women express their depression in gender specific ways. According to available literature, men are known to mask their depression through various forms like excessive drinking. This implies that the differentiation of the rate of depression between men and women is just done by way of illusion (FredÃ ©n 167). Many studies have been conducted within cultures and also cross-culture with the aim of identifying symptoms of depression in both men and women. It is argued that women are twice as likely as men to be diagnosed of major depression. Even though this difference is great, it is because older women are mostly likely to seek professional assistance as compared to their men counterparts; the implication here is that even though men may suffer equal measure of depression as women, they are less likely to seek the services of a profession to help them handle their depression. Culturally, in some regions of the world, men are encultured not to express their sadness, stress or depression in public; in fact, men who do so are mostly likely to be considered as having feminine behavior, so they choose to endure depression within them. On the side, women share their grief with friends and expose publicly their depression; this makes it easy to notice. Moreover, men who suffer from depression are associated with mental illness and as has been discussed earlier, feminine (FredÃ ©n 167). Other research has also attempted to link the rate of depression with sexual orientation. Even though older adults are highly likely to have low sexual performance, their sexual orientation has been found to play a significant role in contributing to their depression statuses. Research indicates that lesbians are more depressed than their heterosexual counterparts. Moreover, even though much study have not been done, older adult population is very common with lesbians. In fact, this may be accounted for by the fact that it cannot be expected that when gays and lesbians get old, they should switch their sexual orientation to heterosexuals. There are a number of older lesbians and gays and this part of the aging population suffer a lot of stigma from anti-lesbians and anti-gays. It is therefore not unusual to here of depressed and isolated older adults in the society. Due to stigma associated with lesbianism and gay sexual orientation, many of the lesbian and gay older adults suffer depression as not so many people want to identify with them (Melillo, et al 10). Since the older adults are almost entirely dependent on others for livelihood and medical care, the lesbians and gays suffer from lack of concern, especially from the healthcare departments as they do not recognize the existence of lesbians and they are unresponsive to the fact that being lesbian and gay is also a form of lifestyle t hat should not be used as a point of individual discrimination. Due to this, old adults who are heterosexuals are the ones who have greatly benefited from healthcare plans in most countries, particularly in the United States of America. The implication of this is that the lesbians and gays are left out in terms of medical care plans and hence are subjected to depression as they ponder about their heath and how to get medical services (Melillo, et al 10). One fact is than most lesbian and gay partners live together, but when it comes to old age, one partner is not legally allowed to participate in healthcare decisions of another partner and this even include being barred from funeral arrangement in cases of death of one of the partner. This also subjects them to depression which may aggravate due to poor adjustment to aging situations. Again gays and lesbians are greatly concerned about their housing; they always wish to live in communities that dominated by homosexuals or at least a community in which people recognize existence and the needs of lesbians and gays. The problem is that these groups of people tend be isolated and may further be far removed from children and the young people who are feared by the society may get influenced by these lesbians and gays. Contrarily, heterosexual older adults are not likely to suffer any depression arising from any of these factors. Instead, they are well recognized by the society and may not suffer much depression as their homosexual counterparts. The fact that is that homosexuality is the universally accepted sexual orientation in the world and hence forms a larger society than the lesbian and gay community. The heterosexuals are mostly likely to get consolations from groups like Christians groups which make them cope easily with depression (Melillo, et al 23). Conclusion Depression is a condition that mostly affects the cognition of a human being. It means different thing to different people; it can be symptomatic as when an individual says he or she is feeling depressed, it also be a sign as when someone observes that another person is depressed or at the same time it can be a disorder that is clinically diagnosed. Research has indicated that each individual has a pattern of genetic, developmental, environmental, social, personality and physiological factors that coalesce to permit or protect against depression at any point in time. Depression is one of the most disabling conditions among the older adult population in the world today. Depression in older adults is caused by varied numerous factors and may be different from the causative factors leading to depression in the younger people. In addition to the biological etiology of depression in the older adults, there are vividly cognitively contributing factors. Research has found that race plays a significant role depression amongst older adults; black older adults are more likely to suffer depression as compared to their white counterparts. Given racial and ethnic discriminations, it is important to state that races that are subject or victims of racial discrimination are more likely to suffer depression; the older elders may resign into perception where they feel inferior to the perceived superior whites and hence cause them hopelessness and depression, especially when they see their loved ones or fellow race members being discriminated against. Gender also plays a significant role in depression. According to the findings, women have higher chances of experiencing depression than men (FredÃ ©n 167). Even though it is not clear what really accounts for this, but researchers acknowledge the contribution of several factors which entails impact of estrogen on stress hormones, the common victimization of women through rape and domestic violence and cortisol. Other research has also attempted to link the rate of depression with sexual orientation. Even though older adults are highly likely to have low sexual performance, t heir sexual orientation has been found to play a significant role in contributing to their depression statuses. Research indicates that lesbians are more depressed than their heterosexual counterparts (Melillo, et al 23). Conversely, heterosexual older adults are likely to get assistances from the general members of the society as they do not engage in what the members of the society may describe as anti-social. Due to this, they are less likely to suffer depression as compared to their lesbian and gay counterparts. Bernal, Guillermo. Handbook of racial and ethnic minority psychology. New York: SAGE, 2003. FredÃ ©n, Lars. Psychosocial aspects of depression: no way out? New York: Wiley, 1982. Jefferson, James. Depression and its treatment. New York: American Psychiatric Pub, 1992. Melillo, Karen et al. Geropsychiatric and mental health nursing. New Jersey: ones Bartlett Learning, 2005. Williams, Arthur. Depression research in nursing: global perspectives. New York: Springer Publis hing Company, 2005.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Economical Analysis of Worldbiotechcom, Inc - Essay Example The former was driven by the introduction of cars, television, radio and electric power while the latter resulted from the use of Internet and emergence of e-commerce. NASDAQ index spiked then abruptly went into a steep decline after the dot-com bubble burst leading many investors to bankruptcy. There was so much hype in the new technologies as the forecasted prospects were very promising only to be dismayed by modest results and dismal returns. For example, so many people invested in the Internet because they thought that they could easily gain an easy buck given the increasing availability, accessibility and minimal investments it requires. Instead, they were driven to bankruptcy by websites offering free services. (Smith et al 2002 ; Topol 2003) The most pressing problem with regards to the new transport system is not so much in the entry of other players or the saturation of the market but in the inherent risk in using it. While other means of transportation such as automobiles, ships and airplanes have their own death statistics, they offer a relatively higher degree of confidence because these modes can be maneuvered and abandoned to prevent the loss of life and limbs. Even if we insist that the transport mode is safe and use simulation runs as evidence, we can never discount the possibility of an accident. A single accident could send tremors across the whole industry and send it tumbling down because people would be scared of the prospect of being atomized to nothingness and being unable to do something about it. It is expected that exceptional mandatory quality standards will be implemented by the government in light of the risks involved in the use of the technology. The worst case scenario would include the disclosure on the hazard of using the technology which can dissuade potential buyers or users. Controls on employment or production such as exhaustive testing could prove to be very
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
What was the importance of inter-theatre mobility and lift in Gulf War 1 - Essay Example It also ensured sustainability and tooth to tail principles by causing convenience to defence department to deploy its troops and military cargo, the series of equipment and personnel far away from its geographical boundaries (Matthews and Holt, 1996). The air lift by employing specially skilled military personnel was also instrumental in success of USA during Gulf War1, Afghanistan War and Malta War. During this operation the USA exhibited its strategic mobility and forward presence through combined efforts from Defence Transportation System (DTS) i.e. the United States Transportation Command and its service components, and the civilian transportation industry which facilitated the allies of USA to gather an overwhelming military force to defeat Iraq and free Kuwait. The sustainability and tooth to tail principles of inter-theatre mobility ensured the sheer determination, hard work and dedication of the military and civilian personnel of USA and its allied nations during Gulf War1 and Afghanistan War. Inter-theatre mobility reduced the risk element for the forces in operation during this war when initial deployment of military forces of USA was considered to be the largest till date but failed in timely deployment of more forces in later phases (Department of Defence, 1992). In December, 2009, US President Barack Obama announced American plan to deploy 30,000 more troops to Afghanistan making its total strength to 1,00,000 and wanted to take help from Malta for bringing a quicker end to eight-year war (Xuereb, 2009). Three major components constituted the inter-theatre mobility of USA during Gulf War1 i.e. strategic lift aircraft which helped in flying cargo and personnel, ships for carrying the steam cargo from the United States, and preposition of military stocks or commodities of important nature nearer to war region. In Gulf War1, USA and its allied forces utilized airlift, sealift and
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Ergonomic Factors in Workplace Accidents Critically evaluate the ergonomic factors that may lead to incidents or accidents in the workplace environment. You should make reference to relevant examples where appropriate. It is essential that you research the current scientific literature on this subject and that you use this literature to support your critical discussion throughout. Introduction Ergonomics (Ahonen, M., Launis, M., Kuorinka, T.,1989) is a branch of engineering science, it accords the factors such as peoples psychology, peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s physiology, and body structure to design the hand tools, machines, households accessories, etc., in order to guarantee peoples security, work healthily, comfortably, and satisfied working results. Ergonomics has absorbed the extensive knowledge contents of natural science and social science; During World War II, because of the production of various modern weapons, designers must consider the users physiology and psychological characteristic conscientiously, and study how to make the machine in conformity with peoples ability limit and characteristic, thus the Ã¢â¬Å"ergonomicsÃ¢â¬ has produced. Today, the ergonomics designs are widely used in the world (Alexander, D., Rabourn, R., 2001). In the study of Ã¢â¬Å"ergonomicsÃ¢â¬ , the size of every part of human body, the persons vision and normal physiological value of the sense of hearing, the posture when people are working, human scope of activities, movement rhythm and speed, the muscle intensity, all are recorded (Bailey, R. W., 1989). Since those labor condition would causes the tire, fatigue, small amount damage to human body. Furthermore, the workplace environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, sound, vibration, illumination, color, smell of the environment are also a study area in ergonomics. Because those environmental conditions also causes the tire, fatigue, small amount damage to human body (Chengalur, S.N., Rodgers, S.H., Bernard, T.E., 2003). The study on peoples working behavior and produce various factors of the behavioral difference in ergonomic; these factors can be drawn together. It includes subjective factors such as age, gender, personal intelligence, culture engineering level, working interest and working motive, personality characteristic, working mood, etc. At the same time, the Ergonomics expert/researcher also study the social factor of living in objective factors such as the environment, equipment performance, condition of work, etc. These factors make peoples has a difference to the intensity of adaptation to various hand tools, fixture, machine, or equipment (Eastman Kodak Company, 2003). . Ergonomic Related Injury Ergonomic injuries include Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMIs), Repetitive Stress Injuries (RSIs), Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs), Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs), or Cumulative Trauma Injuries (CTIs) (Armstrong, T. J., Kilbom, A., Violante, F. , 2000) (Arndt, R., Putz-Anderson, V. , 2002). The Ergonomic injuries (Hancock, P. A., Desmond, P. A., 2000). normally caused by the presence of ergonomic related risk factors (Aghazadeh, F.,1994), they are: Vibration: People uses impact tools or vibrating equipment. Awkward Body Postures: maintaining awkward or fixed or posture without any support such as twisting, reaching, or bending. Repetition: the people doing the same and repetitive motions for a long time. Force: The pressure applied to any part of human body while working such as gripping a hand tool, pulling, lifting, or pushing, pulling. Contact Stress: pressure applied to any soft tissues of human body while working such as the as the wrist pressed by sharp edges or hand tools. Exposure to heat or cold It is often these risk factors over time can lead to combinations of pain, injury and disability when people may cause injury, sustained exposure to ergonomic risk factors (Alston, G. (2003). Single event may place a stressed body tissues, but the exposure is too low bruises. Over time, the soft tissue or human body has the ability to recover. Repeated exposure to these risk factors, it may interfere with the bodys normal healing process, resulting in a disproportionate response, and lead to cause harm to humans (Alli, B. O., 2001). Ergonomic injury or MSD can affect the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints, cartilage and intervertebral discs. They can be directly or indirectly related to job duties or work environment. Non- work activities and the environment will also affect the MSD. For example, the general staff may spend 6-8 hours a days computer work. With features such as online shopping, paying bills online, and sends the emails. The employee may spend 2-4 hours daily supplement his or her personal computer for sending and receiving e-mail. When the steps we spend more and more time each day on the computer , we have taken to ensure that our computers ( both in work and at home ) is set up to prevent these musculoskeletal disorders is imperative (Ayoub, M. M., Mital, A.,1989). Ergonomics is in already using various products, facility and production system extensively in the mechanical industry (Auburn Engineers, 1993). For example, driving car is an integration of people machine environmental system, driver should first find out about environment (rate of traffic flow, stream of people, traffic light, and sign) and status of car such as speed, engine temperature, pressure, oil level, etc. The driver has interaction with car control system for perfect driving. In addition to make the driver drive car with safe and comfortable, driver should adjust drivers seat. Furthermore, the vehicle designer should follow the human measurements, physiology, psychological characteristics while designing the car. 3. Example of Improvement of Screw Driver Design in Accordance with Ergonomics Rule Screwdriver is one of the most frequently used hand tools now, no matter is nearly indispensable tool in the factory or family, but when a person use screwdrivers, its main purpose may be to fasten into and back-out the screw, the homework involves the repetitiveness work of the hand, it crook back of especially wrist (Backs, R. W., Boucsein, W., 2000), palm crooking etc. The People/workers frequently use of screwdriver is easily to cause the accumulating muscle skeleton injuring or hand injury such as Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). For general screwdriver, it is a combination of a handle, a shaft, and a tip. The tip can be inserted into the head of the screw to fasten it into or back-out from a board, or wall. Figure 1. Screwdriver Design Before Improvement Figure 2. Screwdriver Design After improvement According to ergonomics, the new screwdriver design make the shaft with more greatly spraining strength, and then let user feel comfortable to hold the screwdriver and efficiency in use (Bahr, N. J., 1997) (Campbell, A., 2000). The ergonomics design includes the change of materials of handle. Use rubbery material to replace hard plastic or metal. The soft rubbery material provides strong friction between the handle of screwdriver and hand to prevent the slip whiles the use. The size and shape of handle should also be changed. In accordance with ergonomics, the size and shape of handle should fit the human wrist. It makes the people easily to hold the screwdriver with more comfortable and less fatigue (Green, J., 1997). The result of modification of screwdriver designs (based on ergonomic rules) is: (1)Increase the comfortableness when screwdrivers are held. (2)Flexibility degree, efficiency and torsion increasing while the use of screwdriver. (3)Reduce the probability of accumulating injury of the hand. 4. Example of Improvement of Computer Desk in Accordance with Ergonomics Rule According to the literature, there are a considerable number of computer operators complain about the long-term use of computer generated body discomfort, Including eye irritation affected eye feel pressure, keyboard or desk height not suitable for the operator and cause limbs stiff, these can lead to injury or damage to persons of the body, not only affect their health, but also reduce the work efficiency (Hanna, S. R., Konz, S., 2004). In accordance with ergonomics rules (Barling, J., Frone, M. R., 2004), computer desk should be designed to have a tilt angle, it allowing users to use the computer in the long term (Haas, E., Edworthy, J., 2003), and feel more comfortable in sitting job. The improved design also increases the work efficiency, but user doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel more burden or fatigue. In addition, the height and angle of desktop computer desk, with height and angle of display platform can also be adjustable to fit the body size of user (Anshel, J., 2005). Easy adjustable desktop computer desk, it allows users to feel more comfortable with less fatigue while the use of desk top computer (Grandjean, E., 1992). Source: http://www.cbs.state.or.us/osha/pdf/ergo/ergoadvantages.pdf Figure 3. Comfortable Setting of Computer Desk The improvement of desk top computer desk design in accordance with ergonomics rules can benefits users as follows: (1) The user can easily adjust the height and angle of desktop computer desk, it make user more comfortable while use of desktop computer. (2) The improvement of desktop computer desk design can reduce the burden/fatigue on the user shoulders, neck, and other parts of the elbow while long-term use of desktop computer. (3) The improvement of desktop computer desk design can reduce the eye fatigue while user long-term faced the monitor. 5. Example of Improvement of the Use of Portable Computer/Note Book Computer in Accordance with Ergonomics Rule Portable application of computer (Note Book Computer) is already quite popular as desk top computer, especially note book computer is easy to carry and place on the office table and play as desk top computer. More companies encourage the employee to use of note book computer instead of traditional desk top computer. But, based on the characteristic of the portable computer/note book computer in the design, for example, the keyboard and screen cannot separated from the computer, the user is often difficult to keep the good working posture while working. In long-term cases, it may cause muscle and bones straining or other relevant health problems. The improvement for the use of note book computer is needed. User or employee should follow the principles as much as possible while using the portable computer to work: Place the screen in front of the user Keeping the height of screen is the same as users sight height as much as possible (Anshel, J., 1998), or the screen is only lower than user sight height slightly (portable computer/note book computer normally placed on desk and then the screen being higher than the level of the tabletop) User should takes distance of 350-600 millimeters to the screen of portable computer/note book computer (display screen of 14 inches relatively takes distance of 400 millimeters) User can easily change the slope of screen and then cater to the users need User should avoid viewing the screen near window or other light sources The text size should be large, word distance and row spacing should be enough. Use the wrist or mouse cushion Platform for Portable Computer/Note Book Computer shelf /platform The employer should provide platform or screen support frame for note book computer user. This can help user to adjust the height of screen at users sight level. External keyboard and mouse The employer should provide ergonomics compatible external keyboard and mouse to note book computer user. It makes user, more comfortable and less fatigue (Jacko, J. A., Sears, A., 2003). Under many circumstances, external keyboard and mouse are the important accessories for portable computers user in the office. The following are suggestions of the external keyboard: The keyboard is thinner as much as possible, it is much better if the angle of keyboard can be adjusted in order to facilitate the user under different working conditions and postures (Vink, P., 2005); Word and symbol on the keyboard should be known and easy to recognize; There are enough spaces that offered support for hand in front of the keyboard.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
This chapter provides an overview of the CPT Surgery section and covers its guidelines. The chapter also focuses on the CPT Surgery General and Integumentary System subsections. Lesson Objective Define key terms. Explain the organization, format, and content of the CPT Surgery section. Interpret CPT surgery section guidelines and modifiers. Interpret CPT surgery coding notes for the General and Integumentary System subsections. Assign CPT surgery codes from the General and Integumentary System subsections. Add CPT and/or HCPCS level II modifiers to codes as appropriate. Surgery Section Organization The Surgery section is the largest section in CPT and its subsections are organized anatomically. Selecting the appropriate surgery code requires a careful review of the patient record to determine the procedures and services provided. The basic organization of the Surgery section is by major body system, with headings and subheadings based on anatomic site and/or type of procedure. The CPT Surgical Package Definition See pages 481-482 of the 3-2-1 Code It! text; What services are always included? Read the Surgery Guidelines at the beginning of the Surgery Section in the CPT code book. Surgical Modifiers If services are provided by more than one physician, what modifiers do you use? When do you use them? Read about unusual services and treatments. What is the modifier to show unusual services? When do you use it? Find the modifier for a separate procedure. What is the definition of separate procedure? What modifier would you use to show a distinct procedural service? Integumentary System Integumentary procedures include incision, biopsy removal, paring/curettement, shaving, destruction, excision, repair, adjacent tissue rearrangements, grafts, flaps, and specialized services. Refer to the definitions of surgical terms in the textbook.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Analyzing the argument surrounding Vicky and Ying Ying, I do adhere to the arguments pointed out by Vicky concerning the capacity of crime mapping to be used as an instrument towards harnessing opportunities for resolving crime. Under this particular scenario, Ying Ying only asserts the corresponding threats of leakage and information breach that criminals can use in order to achieve their plans of action.However, there are limited areas that explain how it can be harmful within the scope of policing. Seeing this, by actively providing minor adjustments in the process of crime mapping, information security, and analysis of data, the process can indeed be further utilized as a means to convey means to reach out in the causes of crime and the corresponding trends shaping individual or group behavior.At the same time, the ability to outline specific means to categorize behaviors help law enforcement agencies to point out valid arguments concerning location, intent, and actions among cri minals who operate in a particular location. This is important in developing key strategies on areas that can explore new directions towards encouraging citizens to become responsive to the needs of the community and participate in the crime-reduction process by utilizing new patterns related to crime fighting, communication, and information sharing within local authorities.